英語學習筆記 English learning Note

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文法規則

  1. 主詞若是第三人稱單數現在式,動詞必須加上 s
  2. 一個句字中不可有二個動詞
  3. 一定要同時使用二個動詞時,可在後面的動詞前加上 to , 或在後面的動詞加上 ing
  4. 每一個動詞(原形)都有過去式與過去分詞(past participle),稱之為動詞三態
  5. 在不定詞 to 的後面,必須使用原形動詞
  6. 除了be動詞之外的否定句,大都需利用助動詞來完成否定句,如 do not, can not, will not, shout not, shall not, may not, must not
  7. 助動詞「do」「can」「may」「might」「will」「would」「must」替代一般動詞作時態的變化,所以其後的動詞必須是原形動詞
  8. 助動詞「have」之後的動詞除外,不可使用原形動詞而必須使用過去分詞
  9. 除be動詞之外的問句都要有助動詞,如Did you go to school yesterday?, How many sons do you have?
  10. 特殊動詞(be/ have)會隨著主詞變化而變化,如 I am, You are, She is, I have, You have, She has,.....
  11. 現在式(present tense)指的是一種狀態、真理、自然界的現象、科學的定理等,如 Jade mountain is a very high mountain.
  12. 正在做的動作而非一種狀態,要使用現在進行式:be動詞+現在分詞(present participle),現在分詞:動詞+ing,如 His brother is taking a walk.
  13. 過去進行式(past progressive tense)通常與另一個過去式(past tense)連用,如 I was watching TV when the clock struck eight last night.
  14. 現在完成式(present perfect tense)使用 have+過去分詞(past participle) ,使用時機如下:
    1. 一件發生在過去的事且持續到現在,強調過去已發生,例如 I have worn this jacket for a very long time. (這類使用時機容易與現在完成進行式混淆)
    2. 一件已經完成的事,例如 He has already completed the work.
    3. 一種經驗,例如
      I have been to America.
      I have never danced in my life.
    4. 一件過去常發生的事,例如
      We have already had two typhoons so far this year.
      In the past year, I have seen the movie Titanic three times.
  15. 過去發生的事若伴隨過去特定的時間使用過去式,否則使用現在完成式,例如
    過去式(Simple past) 現在完成式(Present perfect)
    I went to America last year. I have been to America.
     I went to see Gone with the Wind. I have never seen Gone with the Wind.
  16. 現在完成式通常伴隨著下列字一起使用 since, for, already, never, ever,例如
    I have studied English since I was a child.
    It has not rained for a long time.
    I have already had dinner.
    I have never met your father.
    Have you ever been to America?
  17. 現在完成進行式(present perfect progressive tense)使用have + been + 現在分詞(present participle)
    1) S + have/has + been + Ving ( 肯定句 )
    2) S + have/has + not + been + Ving ( 否定句 )
    3) Have/Has + S + been + Ving ( 疑問句 )
    其中have是為了完成式,been與現在分詞是為了進行式,使用時機為「 過去做的事情到現在還在持續做...」,強調現在還在持續進行 (容易與現在完成式混淆),例如:
    I have been working here since I graduated from college.
    We have been working hard since we were kids.
  18. 過去式(Past time), 過去完成式(Past perfect), 過去完成進行式(Past perfect progressive) 這三者在句子中的比較及用法
    (1)強調先後~ 一個句子中,先者用過去完成式(had+Vpp), 後者用過去式
    (2)句中兩動作幾乎是同時發生,兩動詞就可以都用「過去式」
    (3)持續發生在過去一段時間的事,用過去完成進行式: had been +Ving

單字

未分類

dramatize vt.戲劇性地描述;生動地表達
Don't dramatize your problems.
別誇大其詞地訴說你的問題了
vaguely ad.不清晰地;含糊地;模糊地 I vaguely remember their house.
我依稀記得他們的房子
expedition n.遠征;探險;考察 They did an expedition to explore the Antarctic.
他們到南極去考察了一次
dazzle vt.使目眩,使眼花 The bright morning sun dazzled him.
早晨明亮的太陽使他睜不開眼來。
versus prep.1. (法律和運動用語,常略作v.或vs.)對;對抗
2. 與...相對
the problem of determinism versus freedom 決定論與自由論相抗衡的問題
infrastructure n.1. 公共建設(如鐵路、公路、下水道等)
2. 基礎建設
   
congestion 擁塞;擠滿 traffic congestion 交通擁擠
overwhelm 覆蓋;淹沒 The village was overwhelmed by ash from the volcano. 村子被火山灰覆蓋。
reflection 反射;回響;反射光,回聲 the reflection of a sound wave 聲波的反射
obstruction 阻塞物;障礙 These obstructions could take some weeks to clear from these canals. 這些障礙物可能要花幾週時間才能從運河中清除掉
ascend 登/爬上 Melody held the candle before her and ascended the dark staircase  
exercise 運用 Aaron exercised good judgement when he chose to quit using drugs.  
roar 呼嘯 The wind roared outside as the children lay peacefully in their beds  
further 促進 To further his career, the young man married the boss' doughter.  
adaptation 改寫的版本    
omitted 省略    
clipped 省略一部分的    
distorted 歪曲的    
decent 正派的;合乎禮儀的    
typos 打字印刷等錯誤    
crucial 重要的    
disclaimer 放棄;拒絕;不承諾    
endorse 在(發票、票據等)背面簽名,背書;簽署(姓名)    

片語

未分類

leave out 省去 They must decide what to leave out.
他們必須決定省去什麼
nuts and bolts 基本要素;具體細節 You have to study the nuts and bolts of English grammar. 你必須研讀英文文法的基本細節
be integral to N 對.....是不可或缺的 Happy employee are integral to a company's success 快樂的員工是成功的公司所不可或缺的
fall on 日期 在...日期 if your birthday falls on February 29th,you have only one birthday every four years  
originate with sb 源自於某人 Rap music originated with urban black youth in the United States  
hollow out 把....挖空 The squirrel hollowed out a portion of the tree and stored its nuts inside. 松鼠將樹的一部份挖空以儲存堅果
ward off 避開.... Contray to popular belief, this product does not ward off mosquitoes 和大家認知所不同的是,這種產品無法讓你免於蚊子叮咬
derive from 起源於... Kings and queens used to believe that their right to rule derive from God 過去的國王和女王都認為他們的君權是神授的
play tricks / a trick on sb 對某人惡作劇 Karen played a trick on her father, shw hid his reading glasses  
trick sb into Ving 騙某人(做)... I tricked the policeman into releasing me by telling him that i had to rush to the hospital  
vow (not)to V 發誓(不)要..... After wrecking his motocycle in an accident, John vowed not to drink again.  
consent to N/Ving 同意 The supervisor consented to the employee's request for a leave of absence  
make contracts / a contract with sb 與某人簽訂合約 Our company made a contract with Toyota to deliver 2000,000 tires by January  
stock up on 儲備 One should stock up on cold medicine during cold and flu season  
in the midst of 在.....當中    
an array of 那一整排的 That night market has an array of goods for sale  
at hand 當前的 I can't sleep well because the exam is at hand  
lead to N/Ving 導致 Smoking cigarettes leads to heart and lung problems  

參考書目

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